There are lots of climate classifications but the most useful and concise one is from NCC. There are 8 distinct Climate zones:

Climate zone 1 – High humidity summer, warm winter such as Darwin

Climate zone 2 – Warm humid summer, mild winter such as Brisbane

Climate zone 3 – Hot dry summer, warm winter such as Alice Springs

Climate zone 4 – Hot dry summer, cool winter such as Dubbo

Climate zone 5 – Warm temperate such as Sydney, Perth and Adelaide

Climate zone 6 – Mild temperate such as Melbourne.

Climate zone 7 – Cool temperate such as Hobart

Climate zone 8 – Alpine regions.